A fly named in honour of Beyoncé; plum extracts as food preservatives; and the crucial role of social media during the 2011 Queensland floods are just some of the interesting stories that emerged from Australian research published in the last week. Find over a dozen other stories below.
Gift of the gab helps plants beat drought
Scientists have found a signal in plants which may act as a drought alarm, allowing them to adapt to drought conditions. The signal was discovered while trying to understand how different parts of the cell communicate with each other under drought conditions in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, a relative of canola. Inside every animal and plant cell there are a series of connected pathways, like the production lines of a factory. For it to work efficiently, each department must be able to communicate product shortages, adverse conditions or breakdowns. For some time, scientists have proposed that chemical signals must be sent by a particular “plant department”, or organelle, to the nucleus (the cell’s control centre) for plants to become aware of, and adapt to, harsh conditions.
Dr Gonzalo Estavillo, Professor Barry Pogson, ARC Centre for Excellence in Plant Energy Biology, Research School of Biology, ANU
Fortunately for men, size doesn’t matter (much)
Canberra biologists have discovered that the male-specific Y-chromosome is shrinking – and it’s happening at different rates across species. The research team discovered that a marsupial’s Y-chromosome is genetically denser than the human Y-chromosome, meaning that animals like the tammar wallaby are bounds ahead on the ‘manliness’ scale. However, even though the Y-chromosome is shrinking, in this case size doesn’t matter. The international study analysed DNA samples from tammar wallabies and found more genes on the male chromosome than expected.
Dr Paul Waters, Research School of Biology, ANU
Smart probe detects termites by ‘hearing’ them eat
West Australian researchers have come up with a sensitive acoustic device that can detect termite infestation by ‘hearing’ them chewing through timber. Once detected, the device can immediately send an SMS or email to a pest control firm—with the termites’ GPS location—so they can take appropriate action to protect the property. The device can also detect termite activity in timber bridges and wooden power poles. The developers are looking to commercialise the device in Australia within the next 12 months and say it has the potential to revolutionise the pest control industry. The device is called WiSPr (short for ‘wireless smart probe’) network for acoustic detection.
A/Prof Adam Osseiran, Edith Cowan University, Perth
Quakes unearth Australia’s underground past
Canberra geologists have used the latest earthquake-measuring technology to image the tectonic plate beneath southeast Australia and reveal the continent’s geological building blocks for the first time. The Australian scientists, with international colleagues, conducted the research using seismometers placed throughout eastern Australia. The instruments – which record ground motions caused by earthquakes as far away as Indonesia, Fiji and Japan – allowed researchers to probe deep beneath the Earth’s surface and find evidence of some key geological events that shaped the land mass we know today. “The southeast of the Australian continent preserves a rich geological history that spans almost half a billion years. This history involves significant geological events like the opening of the Tasman Sea, the break-up of Australia and Antarctica and more recent volcanic events.”
Dr Nick Rawlinson, Research School of Earth Sciences, ANU
New species of fly named in honour of performer Beyoncé
A previously unnamed species of horse fly, whose appearance is dominated by its glamorous golden lower abdomen, has been named in honour of American pop diva, Beyoncé –member of former group Destiny’s Child, which recorded the 2001 hit single, Bootylicious. According to the researcher responsible for officially ‘describing’ the fly as Scaptia (Plinthina) beyonceae, the fly’s spectacular gold colour makes it the “all time diva of flies”.
Bryan Lessard, Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO
Australian Journal of Entomology; http://www.csiro.au/en/Portals/Media/New-species-fly-Beyonce.aspx
Planets outnumber stars in our galaxy
New research has found planets around stars are the rule rather than the exception – there are more planets in our galaxy than there are stars. An international team including five Tasmanian astronomers made the discovery. The team searched for exoplanets (planets outside the Solar System) using gravitational microlensing. This method can detect planets over a much wider range of masses, and distances from their parent stars (stars that give the planets light and warmth), than other methods. In six years of observations, the Probing Lensing Anomalies NETwork (PLANET) and the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) researchers discovered three exoplanets on their own, and seven more in co-operation with other survey teams. Although the number of planets that were detected is small, statistical analysis of the microlensing process shows that it is a truly impressive haul. To detect these planets, astronomers have either hit a jackpot against huge odds, or planets are so abundant in the galaxy that their discovery is almost inevitable.
Dr John Greenhill, School of Maths and Physics, University of Tasmania
Hotter homes produce smarter babies
A hotter home appears to produce babies with better cognitive abilities. But before you turn up the home heater to make your baby brainier, take note that the research was conducted by Sydney researchers on the Australian lizard Bassiana duperreyi. Many other traits in young reptiles are determined by the temperature of the nest, so researchers looked at how incubation temperature would affect the learning performance of these lizards. Their study found that lizard eggs incubated at higher temperatures resulted in baby lizards with enhanced learning performance.
Biology Letters; http://sydney.edu.au/news/84.html?newsstoryid=8471
Fighting illnesses that accompany the latest anti-psychotic drugs
Anti-psychotic drugs for treating serious mental illnesses such as bipolar disorder or schizophrenia, are effective and often life-saving, but come with unwelcome side effects. They dramatically increase weight as well as the incidence of metabolic disorders such as raised blood fats and type 2 diabetes, say Sydney-based specialists. In fact, there are measurable effects within 3 to 6 months of starting treatment. The rapid decline in physical health is so clinically significant, and of such concern, that the specialists have put together a physical health protection algorithm, which they say should run in tandem with mental health treatment. It includes regular and specified measurement of tangibles – weight, waistline and blood chemistry – as well as counselling about lifestyle and diet. The new ‘treatment algorithm’ was adopted by NSW Health in June 2010, and is also being adopted in the UK by the Royal College of Psychiatrists and the Royal College of General Practitioners. With the backing of the University of NSW, these clinical researchers have established an International working party on Physical Health in Youth with Psychosis (iphYs), launched in Sydney last month.
A/Prof Katherine Samaras, Clinical Researcher, Garvan Institute of Medical Research; Dr Jackie Curtis, endocrinologist, St. Vincent’s Hospital, Sydney
Early Intervention in Psychiatry; http://www.garvan.org.au/news-events/news/fighting-illnesses-that-accompany-the-latest-anti-psychotic-drugs.html
Long warm-ups fatiguing players
New work shows major sporting clubs may be tiring their players by warming up for too long. Studies by Victorian researchers compared performance after various warm-up routines including one conducted by a first class (Serie A) Italian soccer club. The study showed a specific six-minute warm-up routine produced better results than the club’s all-encompassing 23-minute routine, which included run-throughs, stretching and change-of-direction tasks. The players’ speed, agility and jumping performance were all better after the short warm-up – by as much as 7 per cent – while athletes in the longer warm-up showed signs of fatigue.
James Zois, Institute of Sport Exercise and Active Living, Victoria University
Journal of Science and Sport Medicine; http://www.vu.edu.au/media/media-releases/long-warm-ups-fatiguing-players
Predators pick prey that balances their diet
University researchers have debunked the dogma that predators aren’t picky eaters – with a new study finding that if they are given a choice of foods, predators will select a diet that maximises their chances of reproducing. The researchers, including an Australian, have shown for the first time that predatory animals choose their food on the basis of its nutritional value, rather than just overall calorie content. The findings are based on a study of the ground beetle, Anchomenus dorsalis, a garden insect that feasts on slugs, aphids, moths, beetle larvae and ants.
Prof Stephen Simpson, University of Sydney
Proceedings of the Royal Society B; http://sydney.edu.au/news/84.html?newsstoryid=8465
New approach to diagnosing anorexia nervosa
A new approach for diagnosing patients with anorexia nervosa has been developed at the University of Sydney. The approach could have a significant impact on the treatment and recovery of sufferers, as well as reducing the strain on public health. Researchers advocate a move to diagnosing anorexia nervosa in stages of severity, similar to the method used for diagnosing cancer. “At the moment, you can only diagnose anorexia nervosa if you have the illness quite severely already.”
Prof Stephen Touyz, Centre for Eating and Dieting Disorders, University of Sydney
Ecosystem biodiversity a key climate change buffer
Preserving diverse plant life will be crucial to buffer the negative effects of climate change and desertification in in the world’s drylands, according to a landmark study. The findings of the multi-author study are based on samples of ecosystems in every continent except Antarctica. They confirm for the first time that the more diverse an ecosystem is, the more ecological functions it performs. It also has implications for carbon sequestration and soil health.
Prof David Eldridge, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, UNSW
Costly copulation – research reveals the price of having sex
A recent Sydney study looking at the mating behaviour of the Australian plague locust has found that reproducing has a particularly high cost. The rate at which locusts are targeted by a predatory species—the black digger wasp—increases significantly during sex. “The startling aspect of these data is that copulation magnified the risk of wasp-mediated death by up to 10 per cent and this happened at a time of maximum reproductive potential for the locusts.” The digger wasp is a parasite that stings and paralyses its prey before dragging it off to a burrow to be buried and eaten alive. It excavates living larders for its larvae, stocking them with the bodies of paralysed insect prey.
Darrell Kemp, Macquarie University
Tourist boats interrupt dolphins’ daily life
While contact with dolphins is often a unique and incredible experience for us, it is important to realise that ‘watching’ activity can have an adverse effect on the dolphins themselves. Research shows that in cases where human–wildlife interactions turn into large-scale tourism industries, these activities can negatively impact wildlife – for example – by disrupting resting or feeding. Wildlife tourism therefore needs regulations aiming to ensure both a healthy wild population of animals and satisfactory wildlife encounters for humans.
Andre Steckenreuter, Graduate School of Environment, Macquarie University
Journal of Environmental Management; http://www.sciencealert.com.au/features/20120801-22978-2.html?
Australian-US collaboration leaps ahead in catching spooky light
Experiments with entangled photons have led the way in the burgeoning fields of quantum information, communication and computation in the last decade. Their biggest drawback has always been low photon-detection efficiencies, which has limited their potential applications. Now, a joint experiment by Australian and US labs has fixed this problem, doubling the previous record in entangled photon-detection ratio to 62 per cent, and closing the detection ‘loophole’ in the strange phenomenon of quantum steering.
Dr Marcelo de Almeida, The University of Queensland; Prof Andrew White, ARC Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems (EQuS); Prof Howard Wiseman, Griffith University
Fresh hopes for anti-microbial potential from Aussie native plants
Queensland scientists have discovered promising new anti-microbial properties in a combination of natural plant ingredients, including two common native Australian plums. The researchers discovered that when small amounts of the Kakadu and Queensland Davidson plum are combined with organic acids they display promising new anti-microbial properties. They were looking at how native plants might be used to extend the shelf-life of processed kangaroo meat in pet food, which would help to reduce the industry’s reliance on preservatives such as sulphides.
Dr Yasmina Sultanbawa, The University of Queensland
Scientists pinpoint timing of powerful black hole activity
A West Australian radio astronomer is a step closer to understanding how black holes can launch superfast ‘bullets’ of gas into space, by identifying the exact moment when these ‘bullets’ form. Combining observations from NASA’s Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) satellite and the National Science Foundation’s (NSF) Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope, he led the international team of radio astronomers who made the discovery. Identifying the moment when the ‘bullets’ of gas were launched will assist radio astronomers to better understand the physics of how and why black holes launch fast-moving flows of material outwards. This, in turn could help reveal more about similar processes occurring around super-sized black holes at the centres of galaxies.
Dr James Miller-Jones, principal investigator, The International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR)
Role of social media in floods coverage and response
Social media sites Twitter and Facebook played a crucial role in disseminating information during the 2011 Queensland floods. That is the key finding of a report released by the ARC Centre of Excellence for Creative Industries and Innovation (CCI) available at http://is.gd/mf0FUE. CCI researchers focussed especially on the role of Twitter, which was prominently used by the Queensland Police Service during the crisis.
Earth’s acid coming from nature
Satellites showing that nature is responsible for 90 per cent of the Earth’s atmospheric acidity shocked researchers from the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, whose findings have just been published in the journal. Stunned, the scientists approached an Australian team to confirm what satellite readings were telling them. By providing data from a ground-based solar Fourier transform spectrometer instrument at the University of Wollongong, the researchers used 15 years worth of information to verify the satellite’s story: all existing global models had substantially misjudged the main source of formic acid levels on earth – its forests.
Dr Clare Murphy, Centre of Atmospheric Chemistry, University of Wollongong
Nature Geoscience; http://media.uow.edu.au/news/UOW117161.html
Picky females prefer well-fed males
A good upbringing can make you more attractive to females – if you are a mosquito fish, that is. Researchers from the ACT have shown that female mosquito fish prefer males who had a solid nutritional upbringing, even if the males are superficially identical to their poorly-fed brothers. “Males similar in body size, but differing in developmental history, are not equally attractive to females.”
Andrew Kahn, Jules Livingston, Research School of Biology, ANU.
Biology Letters; http://news.anu.edu.au/?p=13401
Australia and NZ have highest rates of cannabis use
Australia and New Zealand have the highest rates of cannabis and amphetamine use in the world, according to comprehensive research on illicit drug use. Up to 15 per cent of 15 to 64 year olds in the two countries use cannabis, while 2.8 per cent of the same age group use drugs such as speed and crystal meth. The latter figure does not include use of ecstasy. The data is included in a series of papers examining global drug use and law enforcement.
Prof Louisa Degenhardt, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre (NDARC), UNSW
New international research defends genome-wide association studies
Since 2005, genome-wide association studies have successfully identified thousands of genes responsible for common human diseases. Despite these impressive genetic discoveries, criticism has been aimed at these kinds of studies for a lack of immediate therapeutic results, uncertain biological significance of findings, and because the majority of genetic variants associated with common diseases remain unidentified. An international study including two Australians addresses these criticisms and defends the contribution of genome-wide studies.
Professor Peter Visscher and Professor Matthew Brown, The University of Queensland
American Journal of Human Genetics; http://www.uq.edu.au/news/index.html?article=24262