Trees remember heatwaves

Macquarie University, Media releases
Eucalyptus grandis

The flooded gum or rose gum (Eucalyptus grandis). Photo: Geoexplore

An Aussie eucalypt can ‘remember’ past exposure to extreme heat, which makes the tree and its offspring better able to cope with future heatwaves, according to new research from Macquarie University.

This finding could have important implications for restoring ecosystems and climate-proofing forestry, as the number of hot days and heatwaves increase due to climate change.

Further images below.

“Unlike animals, which can bury deeper into the soil or flee to cooler locations, plants are stuck in one spot and so must be able to withstand extreme conditions in situ,” says Dr Rachael Gallagher, senior author of the paper published in the journal Functional Ecology.

Rachael and her team looked at how different populations of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings, commonly known as flooded gum or rose gum, responded when they were exposed to a simulated four-day 42°C heatwave in the lab.

The flooded gum is a widespread tree species along 2,000 kilometres of Australia’s east coast, from Newcastle in New South Wales to Cairns in far north Queensland. It is also an important forestry species, grown in timber plantations across the globe including in Australia, South Africa and Brazil.

The researchers found that seedlings whose parents had experienced more days of extreme heat in the wild were better able to cope with the simulated heatwave conditions, because they made more protective proteins to protect their cells from heat stress.

These protective proteins act as molecular chaperones: they transport other proteins to their correct locations within the cell, and help the cell to keep functioning normally despite the stress it is under.

“This is a significant new finding,” says Rachael, “we have shown that trees have a ‘molecular memory’ for extreme heat.”

Compared to other plants like herbs and grasses, trees typically take a long time to mature and make new seeds. This may limit their ability to adapt to our rapidly changing climate.

“By using this approach we can work out which populations might provide the best seed for restoring ecosystems and climate-proofing forestry as temperatures become more extreme,” says Rachael.

The study was conducted by Macquarie University’s Department of Biological Sciences, Department of Molecular Sciences and the Australian Proteome Analysis Facility.

Maher T, Mirzaei M, Pascovici D, Wright IJ, Haynes PA, Gallagher RV. Evidence from the proteome for local adaptation to extreme heat in a widespread tree species. Funct Ecol. 2019;00:1–11.

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Further images

Dr Rachael Gallagher in the field.

Dr Rachael Gallagher working with eucalypts in the field. Photo: Jemma Geoghegan

Eucalyptus grandis seedlings growing in growth cabinets in the lab.

Flooded gum seedlings growing in growth cabinets in the lab. Photo: Timothy Maher

Flooded gum

Flooded gums reach 45 to 55 metres in height, with trunks of between one to two metres in diameter. Photo: HelloMojo